“ETF” stands for exchange traded fund, which, like a regular mutual fund, may invest in an underlying basket of assets such as stocks, bonds, currencies, options or commodities. Unlike regular mutual funds, however, the units of ETFs trade on a stock exchange just like common stock. This means that pricing is transparent and ETF units can be bought and sold throughout the regular trading day.

ETFs are flexible investment tools designed to be used by both individual and institutional investors. As a basket of investments, ETFs offer the diversification of mutual funds, but typically at a fraction of their cost.
Similar to mutual funds, ETFs are typically structured as an open-ended investment trust, meaning that new units of the ETF can be created (or redeemed) to meet demand as required. The liquidity of the ETF unit on the stock exchange is heavily dependent on the liquidity of the underlying holdings in the ETF portfolio. There are two important market mechanisms to ensure ETFs have adequate liquidity: 

1. They are listed on an exchange; this provides a market for them to be traded in a transparent manner.

2. Each ETF has a designated broker obligated to create and redeem its units. In addition, there are other institutional traders known as Market Makers which also participate in the market to provide units on the exchange. This enables an investor to buy and sell units of the ETF at a price that is close to the NAV, excluding any brokerage fees.

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Units of Horizons ETFs trade on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX). Units can be bought and sold throughout the normal trading day, using an online, discount or full-service brokerage account. 
All ETFs have two end-of-day "values". They have a closing market price per unit, as determined on the exchange, (the trading session's last trade), and a net asset value per unit (NAV), as determined by the ETF's independent fund accountant after the market closes 

The closing price is typically the last transaction price of the ETF recorded by the Toronto Stock Exchange, whereas the NAV per unit is an independent calculation created by the ETF’s fund accountant, which calculates the market value of each unit based on the underlying value of the securities held by the ETF net of all its liabilities. 

Since there may be a lag between the last time the ETF traded and changes in the underlying value of the ETF’s holdings, the NAV per unit would generally be considered a more accurate representation of the market value of the ETF. 
A premium or discount to an ETF’s NAV per unit occurs when the market price of an ETF is above or below that NAV per unit. 

The importance of understanding a premium and a discount is relevant when considering investing in an ETF. The level or size of premiums and discounts is generally greater when:
• the underlying assets of the ETF trade at different hours from the ETF (i.e. commodities)
• the underlying assets trade infrequently (i.e. bonds)
• the markets are in a greater state of instability or flux (i.e. at the Open and Close of a trading day)

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Yes, all ETFs offered by Horizons ETFs are eligible to be held within all accounts.

The Horizons ETFs are listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange pursuant to prospectuses filed with Canadian regulators, in accordance with Canadian securities laws and regulations. None of the exchange traded funds managed by Horizons ETFs Management (Canada) Inc. or AlphaPro Management Inc. are regulated by nor registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), or with any other foreign regulatory body. Generally, non-residents of Canada, including U.S. residents, may invest through a local broker in their jurisdiction that has facilities for directly or indirectly executing orders on the Toronto Stock Exchange.

However, at no time may non-residents of Canada be the beneficial owners of a majority of the Units of any one of our ETFs. If at any point the Manager expects or believes that more than 40% of the Units of an ETF are beneficially held by non-residents, the Manager may elect to send notice to one or more such non-resident holders requiring them to sell all or a portion of their units of such ETF within a stated period of time. If such Units have not been sold within the stated period of time, the Manager will suspend the voting and distribution rights associated with those Units and sell the Units on the holders behalf. The rights of affected holders in such instance are limited to receiving the net proceeds of the sale of such Units.

To find out more about Horizons ETFs, please contact your advisor or contact us directly at 1-866-641-5739 toll free or info@HorizonsETFs.com.
An electronic copy of the prospectus can be downloaded from the Horizons ETFs website ETF product page.

To receive a print copy at no charge, please contact us at 1 866 641 5739 toll free or info@HorizonsETFs.com.
As its name implies, a unit split is when an ETF increases the number of outstanding units of the ETF at a particular ratio (such as 2 for 1), and decreases the net asset per unit of the ETF, by the inverse ratio. In a unit split, there is an increase in the number of units issued accompanied by a proportional decrease in the unit price (Net Asset Value), such that the value of holdings remains the same after the split. 

Here's an example:

If on Friday, May 4, 2015, at the end of the trading day for the TSX, it was announced that units of the following ETF would be split on the basis of the ratio (the "Split Ratio") set out below, and began trading on a split adjusted basis on Monday, May 7, 2015. The split becomes effective on May 9, 2015, for unitholders of record on that date: 
 
ETF Ticker Split Ratio
BetaPro Natural Gas -2x Daily Bear ETF HND 4:1

A 4:1 unit split means each unit will be split into four units. After the split, you will have four times the number of HND shares you had previously. Additionally, the price of HND will be divided by a factor of four. Mathematically, this will not impact the value of your investment in HND. For example, if you had 100 shares worth $2,000 prior to the split, you now have 400 shares that are still worth $2,000 post-split. 

Pre-split:
Shares 100
NAV $20 (per share)
Value $2,000 

Post-split on a 4:1 basis:
Shares 400 (100 x 4)
NAV $5 (per share) ($20 ÷ 4)
Value $2,000 
As a general rule of thumb, the decision to split units of an ETF would occur with unit values greater than or equal to $40. The split makes it easier for an investor to afford and trade 100 share "board lots." Without the split, lower trading volumes may occur.
A unit consolidation is the opposite of a unit split, where there is a reduction in the number of units and an accompanying increase in the unit price (NAV), such that the value of holdings remains the same after the consolidation. 

For example, if it was announced on July 6, 20XX, after the TSX closed for trading on Thursday, July 19, 20XX, the units of the following exchange traded fund would be consolidated on the basis of the ratio (the "Consolidation Ratio") set out below, and begin trading on a consolidated basis on Friday, July 20, 20XX, the effective date of the consolidation:
 
ETF Ticker Split Ratio
BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short-Term Futures™ 2x Daily Bull ETF HVU 1:10

Pre-consolidation:
Shares 1,000
NAV $2
Value $2,000 

Post-consolidation:
Shares 100 (1000 ÷ 10)
NAV $20 ($2 x 10)
Value $2,000 

In a 1:10 consolidation, every 10 units would be consolidated into a single unit. This means you will have one-tenth the number of HVU shares and the price of HVU will be multiplied by a factor of 10. Mathematically, this event will not impact the value of your investment in HVU. For example, if you had 100 shares prior to the consolidation, you now have 10 shares, both worth $2,000. 
As a general rule, a consolidation would occur with unit values at or lower than $4. Lower priced securities require a relatively higher number of shares to be traded to establish the same dollar value position. As a result, investors paying brokerage commissions on a per share basis would incur higher transaction costs. As well, brokerage firms typically will not allow securities trading at prices under $3 to be marginable.
Horizons ETFs Management (Canada) Inc. works very closely with reorganization departments at all the major brokerage firms to provide the complete and timely information required for these changes. However, in the normal course of business it may take 3-5 business days to update holdings for clients. Please call your brokerage firm with any questions and to confirm that your individual account has been updated.
Although infrequent, ETFs (like regular mutual funds) can be closed, usually as a result of extremely low investor interest.  Horizons ETFs is required by law to make a public disclosure of its intent to de-list and close an ETF.

After the public disclosure of an ETF closure is made, subscription activity is immediately halted.  Investors can sell their ETF units at any point up until the end of the de-listing day.

Similar to all ETFs, there are designated brokers ensuring the ETF price remains close to NAV (minus a small spread), however where an ETF is being terminated, the bid will remain tightly correlated to the NAV per unit of the ETF while the offer will widen since no new units can be subscribed for. Market Makers will typically only buy units in the market, which means investors will typically only be able to sell their units in the market. 
If a unitholder sells their units of the ETF on the exchange before the de-listing date, they will get the cash proceeds from the sale after the regular 3 day settlement period.  If they did not sell prior to the delisting of the ETF, they will typically receive the cash proceeds approximately 7 days after the de-listed date.  
More commonly known as an index-tracking or passive ETF, it is an ETF that provides one times (1x) the exposure to the underlying index or commodity. As opposed to leveraged ETFs which can provide 2x the daily exposure, or active ETFs that aim to beat a benchmark.

Horizons ETFs offers many types of single or benchmark ETFs such as single equity, single currency, and single commodity ETFs.
For any passive ETF that seeks to replicate the returns of an index or commodity benchmark, the success of the investment strategy is usually measured by how closely the ETF replicates the returns of that index or commodity benchmark. Any deviation from the return of the ETF versus the return of that index or commodity benchmark is generally considered tracking error.
 
Tracking error can be caused by a variety of factors including management fees, trading execution costs and taxes. 
Horizons ETFs is the only ETF provider in Canada to offer ETFs with a Total Return Swap (TRS) structure — a mechanism that provides exposure to an index benchmark without physically holding the securities held in that index. TRS structures historically provide lower tracking error and after-tax performance benefits versus ETFs which seek to replicate an index by physically holding the securities.
 
A TRS is an agreement by which one party makes payments based on a set rate, while the other party makes payments based on the total return of a reference asset. It is a popular institutional investment instrument which ensures a more precise tracking of the total return benchmark, before management fees and expenses.

TRS agreements allow the party receiving the total return to gain exposure to the performance of the index or other reference asset without actually having to own it. 
In an ETF that uses a TRS structure, the ETF does not hold any of the shares of the reference index constituents, so distributions made by the constituents of the reference index are not payable to the ETF.

This means that a shareholder never receives the distributions directly but rather such distributions are reflected as an increase in the NAV per unit, through the TRS, and thus minimizes the tax impact of holding the ETF within a non-registered account. 
Actively managed or active ETFs are similar to traditional mutual funds, but the units of the fund are listed on an exchange. As a result, active ETFs combine the benefits of active management with the traditional structural advantages of ETFs, which results in lower fees, greater flexibility, liquidity, and convenience.
AlphaPro Management Inc. is a subsidiary of Horizons ETFs Management (Canada) Inc. and is the legal entity that oversees the management of the Horizons ETFs’ family of active ETFs.  
Actively managed ETFs
• Managed by one or more portfolio managers
• Seeks to deliver better risk-adjusted returns than an index by selecting the portfolio securities for the ETF that meet its investment goals
• Slightly higher than index ETFs, but generally much lower than comparable actively managed regular mutual funds

Passively managed ETFs 
• Tracks an index
• Seeks to replicate the performance of an index as efficiently as possible
• Low cost, since minimal portfolio oversight is required beyond replicating the index
Almost all of our actively managed ETFs can make distributions.  The distribution frequency and amounts are available on the Horizons ETFs website ETF product page for each active ETF.
These ETFs may pay distributions annually. However, none of these ETFs have ever paid a distribution since their launch. 
For the BetaPro ETFs whose objective is to realize a multiple of 2x or -2x the daily returns of a given benchmark index in particular, an investor's investment will experience the effects of daily compounding.

• For example, if $100 is invested in a BetaPro 2x Daily Bull ETF and the underlying index rises 1% on the next day, the investor would have $200 of exposure on day 1 and earn $2. On the following day, the investor would have $102 invested and $204 (i.e. 2x) of exposure. As such, as the ETF rises on consecutive days, the investor's capital invested to realize the daily return of the underlying benchmark index will increase each day, reflecting the "compounding" effect.

• Conversely, if $100 is invested in a BetaPro 2x Daily Bull ETF and the underlying index declines 1% on the next day, the investor would lose $2. On the following day, $98 will be invested to achieve the same investment objective. As such, as the ETF drops on consecutive days, the investor's capital invested to realize the daily return of the underlying benchmark index will decrease each day, again reflecting the "compounding" effect.

• This latter phenomena explains why the investment risk is limited to the initial cost invested. You are only potentially subject to losing your original investment because the BetaPro 2x Daily Bull, -2x Daily Bear, and Daily Inverse ETFs are rebalanced daily so you cannot lose more than you invested.
Inverse and leveraged ETFs are tactical investment solutions that are primarily designed for the execution of a particular short-term investment strategy or perspective of the markets. These ETFs are designed to meet their investment objective only on a daily basis. They are not appropriate as a buy and hold investments if an investor is unable to closely monitor their performance. Because these ETFs use leverage, gains and losses are magnified and, due to compounding, the performance over periods other than one day will likely differ in amount and possibly direction, from the reference index/commodity benchmark. Please speak to an advisor or read the ETF’s prospectus before investing in them.  
Since these ETFs provide leverage, both gains and losses are magnified. Investors should anticipate a substantially higher standard deviation with these ETFs versus ETFs that do not use leverage. BetaPro ETFs are rebalanced on a daily basis, so unlike traditional leverage strategies, which tend to use lending mechanisms such as margin, BetaPro ETF unit holders will not lose more than their initial investment. These ETFs are designed to meet their investment objective only on a daily basis. Because these ETFs use leverage, gains and losses are magnified and, due to compounding, the performance over periods other than one day will likely differ in amount and possibly direction, from the reference index/commodity benchmark. Please read the prospectus and learn about all the risks associated with leveraged ETF investing.
The BetaPro ETFs track a number of key benchmarks across different asset classes. Please see the specific ETF’s website page on the Horizons ETFs’ website to obtain the benchmark for any of the BetaPro ETFs.
Date Ticker Name S / C Ratio
12/18/2008 HMU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Base Metals™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
12/18/2008 HJU BetaPro MSCI Emerging Markets Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
01/02/2009 HOD BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bear+ ETF S 2 : 1
01/02/2009 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
01/02/2009 HGD BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 5
04/15/2009 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF S 5 : 1
04/15/2009 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
09/16/2009 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF S 2 : 1
09/16/2009 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
10/27/2009 HMU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Base Metals™ Bull+ ETF S 3 : 1
10/27/2009 HMD BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Base Metals™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
10/27/2009 HJU BetaPro MSCI Emerging Markets Bull+ ETF S 3 : 1
10/27/2009 HJD BetaPro MSCI Emerging Markets Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
06/03/2010 HGD BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
11/8/2010 HZU BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bull+ ETF S 3 : 1
11/8/2010 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 2
03/16/2011 HBU BetaPro COMEX® Gold Bullion Bull+ ETF S 2 : 1
03/16/2011 HKU BetaPro Comex® Copper Bull+ ETF S 2 : 1
03/16/2011 HZD BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
05/10/2011 HZU BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bull+ ETF S 3 : 1
09/19/2011 HBD BetaPro COMEX® Gold Bullion Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
11/23/2011 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
04/13/2012 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
04/13/2012 HNO BetaPro NYMEX® Long Natural Gas/Short Crude Oil Spread ETF C 1 : 4
04/13/2012 HUN Horizons NYMEX® Natural Gas ETF C 1 : 4
05/09/2012 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF S 4 : 1
05/09/2012 HIN BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Inverse ETF S 4 : 1
07/19/2012 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 10
01/04/2013 DLR.U Horizons US Dollar Currency ETF C 1 : 1.009601
03/13/2013 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
04/05/2013 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF C 1 : 2
04/05/2013 HUV BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ ETF C 1 : 4
05/06/2013 HZU BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
05/06/2013 HGU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
05/15/2013 HEP Horizons Enhanced Income Gold Producers ETF C 1 : 2
09/09/2013 HXT Horizons S&P/TSX 60™ Index ETF C 1 : 2
11/18/2013 HXS Horizons S&P 500® Index ETF C 1 : 2
11/18/2013 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
11/18/2013 HQD BetaPro NASDAQ/100® Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
12/20/2013 DLR Horizons US Dollar Currency ETF C 1 : 1.005
02/13/2014 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF C 1 : 2
06/18/2014 HED BetaPro S&P/TSX Capped Energy™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
06/18/2014 HFD BetaPro S&P/TSX Capped Financials™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
06/18/2014 HSD BetaPro S&P 500® Index Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
06/18/2014 HQU BetaPro NASDAQ/100® Bull+ ETF S 2 : 1
07/30/2014 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
11/24/2014 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 2
01/14/2015 DLR Horizons US Dollar Currency ETF C 1 : 1.005951
01/16/2015 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
08/24/2015 HEU BetaPro S&P/TSX Capped Energy™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
08/24/2015 HUV BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ ETF C 1 : 10
08/24/2015 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 10
08/25/2015 HVI BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Inverse ETF S 2 : 1
11/26/2015 HGU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bull+ ETF C 1: 5
11/26/2015 HIU BetaPro S&P 500® Inverse ETF C 1 : 10
11/26/2015 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 10
11/26/2015 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 2
11/26/2015 HQD BetaPro NASDAQ/100® Bear+ ETF C 1 : 5
11/26/2015 HXD BetaPro S&P/TSX 60™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 2
11/26/2015 HZU BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
02/16/2016 HEE Horizons Enhanced Income Energy ETF C 1 : 5
02/16/2016 HEP Horizons Enhanced Income Gold Producers ETF C 1 : 5
02/16/2016 HNY Horizons Natural Gas Yield ETF C 1 : 5
05/30/2016 HGD BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
05/30/2016 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 2
05/30/2016 HTD BetaPro U.S. 30/Year Bond Bear+ ETF C 1 : 2
05/30/2016 HUC Horizons NYMEX® Crude Oil ETF C 1 : 2
05/30/2016 HGU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bull+ ETF S 2 : 1
11/23/2016 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ 2x Daily Bull ETF C 1 : 10

The answer is yes, many of the BetaPro ETFs are available for options trading. View the list of applicable ETFs here on the TMX website where investors can also view their real time option chains.

Yes, all ETFs offered by Horizons ETFs are eligible to be held within all accounts.

The Horizons ETFs are listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange pursuant to prospectuses filed with Canadian regulators, in accordance with Canadian securities laws and regulations. None of the exchange traded funds managed by Horizons ETFs Management (Canada) Inc. or AlphaPro Management Inc. are regulated by nor registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), or with any other foreign regulatory body. Generally, non-residents of Canada, including U.S. residents, may invest through a local broker in their jurisdiction that has facilities for directly or indirectly executing orders on the Toronto Stock Exchange.

However, at no time may non-residents of Canada be the beneficial owners of a majority of the Units of any one of our ETFs. If at any point the Manager expects or believes that more than 40% of the Units of an ETF are beneficially held by non-residents, the Manager may elect to send notice to one or more such non-resident holders requiring them to sell all or a portion of their units of such ETF within a stated period of time. If such Units have not been sold within the stated period of time, the Manager will suspend the voting and distribution rights associated with those Units and sell the Units on the holders behalf. The rights of affected holders in such instance are limited to receiving the net proceeds of the sale of such Units.

An electronic copy of the prospectus can be downloaded from the Horizons ETFs website ETF product page.

To receive a print copy at no charge, please contact us at 1 866 641 5739 toll free or info@HorizonsETFs.com.
Similar to mutual funds, ETFs are typically structured as an open-ended investment trust, meaning that new units of the ETF can be created (or redeemed) to meet demand as required. The liquidity of the ETF unit on the stock exchange is heavily dependent on the liquidity of the underlying holdings in the ETF portfolio. There are two important market mechanisms to ensure ETFs have adequate liquidity: 

1. They are listed on an exchange; this provides a market for them to be traded in a transparent manner.

2. Each ETF has a designated broker obligated to create and redeem its units. In addition, there are other institutional traders known as Market Makers which also participate in the market to provide units on the exchange. This enables an investor to buy and sell units of the ETF at a price that is close to the NAV, excluding any brokerage fees.

Click here for more information
“ETF” stands for exchange traded fund, which, like a regular mutual fund, may invest in an underlying basket of assets such as stocks, bonds, currencies, options or commodities. Unlike regular mutual funds, however, the units of ETFs trade on a stock exchange just like common stock. This means that pricing is transparent and ETF units can be bought and sold throughout the regular trading day.

ETFs are flexible investment tools designed to be used by both individual and institutional investors. As a basket of investments, ETFs offer the diversification of mutual funds, but typically at a fraction of their cost.
Although infrequent, ETFs (like regular mutual funds) can be closed, usually as a result of extremely low investor interest.  Horizons ETFs is required by law to make a public disclosure of its intent to de-list and close an ETF.

After the public disclosure of an ETF closure is made, subscription activity is immediately halted.  Investors can sell their ETF units at any point up until the end of the de-listing day.

Similar to all ETFs, there are designated brokers ensuring the ETF price remains close to NAV (minus a small spread), however where an ETF is being terminated, the bid will remain tightly correlated to the NAV per unit of the ETF while the offer will widen since no new units can be subscribed for. Market Makers will typically only buy units in the market, which means investors will typically only be able to sell their units in the market. 
If a unitholder sells their units of the ETF on the exchange before the de-listing date, they will get the cash proceeds from the sale after the regular 3 day settlement period.  If they did not sell prior to the delisting of the ETF, they will typically receive the cash proceeds approximately 7 days after the de-listed date.  
All ETFs have two end-of-day "values". They have a closing market price per unit, as determined on the exchange, (the trading session's last trade), and a net asset value per unit (NAV), as determined by the ETF's independent fund accountant after the market closes 

The closing price is typically the last transaction price of the ETF recorded by the Toronto Stock Exchange, whereas the NAV per unit is an independent calculation created by the ETF’s fund accountant, which calculates the market value of each unit based on the underlying value of the securities held by the ETF net of all its liabilities. 

Since there may be a lag between the last time the ETF traded and changes in the underlying value of the ETF’s holdings, the NAV per unit would generally be considered a more accurate representation of the market value of the ETF. 
Units of Horizons ETFs trade on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX). Units can be bought and sold throughout the normal trading day, using an online, discount or full-service brokerage account. 
To find out more about Horizons ETFs, please contact your advisor or contact us directly at 1-866-641-5739 toll free or info@HorizonsETFs.com.
A premium or discount to an ETF’s NAV per unit occurs when the market price of an ETF is above or below that NAV per unit. 

The importance of understanding a premium and a discount is relevant when considering investing in an ETF. The level or size of premiums and discounts is generally greater when:
• the underlying assets of the ETF trade at different hours from the ETF (i.e. commodities)
• the underlying assets trade infrequently (i.e. bonds)
• the markets are in a greater state of instability or flux (i.e. at the Open and Close of a trading day)

Click here for more information

The answer is yes, many of the BetaPro ETFs are available for options trading. View the list of applicable ETFs here on the TMX website where investors can also view their real time option chains.

Almost all of our actively managed ETFs can make distributions.  The distribution frequency and amounts are available on the Horizons ETFs website ETF product page for each active ETF.
Actively managed or active ETFs are similar to traditional mutual funds, but the units of the fund are listed on an exchange. As a result, active ETFs combine the benefits of active management with the traditional structural advantages of ETFs, which results in lower fees, greater flexibility, liquidity, and convenience.
Actively managed ETFs
• Managed by one or more portfolio managers
• Seeks to deliver better risk-adjusted returns than an index by selecting the portfolio securities for the ETF that meet its investment goals
• Slightly higher than index ETFs, but generally much lower than comparable actively managed regular mutual funds

Passively managed ETFs 
• Tracks an index
• Seeks to replicate the performance of an index as efficiently as possible
• Low cost, since minimal portfolio oversight is required beyond replicating the index
AlphaPro Management Inc. is a subsidiary of Horizons ETFs Management (Canada) Inc. and is the legal entity that oversees the management of the Horizons ETFs’ family of active ETFs.  
In an ETF that uses a TRS structure, the ETF does not hold any of the shares of the reference index constituents, so distributions made by the constituents of the reference index are not payable to the ETF.

This means that a shareholder never receives the distributions directly but rather such distributions are reflected as an increase in the NAV per unit, through the TRS, and thus minimizes the tax impact of holding the ETF within a non-registered account. 
More commonly known as an index-tracking or passive ETF, it is an ETF that provides one times (1x) the exposure to the underlying index or commodity. As opposed to leveraged ETFs which can provide 2x the daily exposure, or active ETFs that aim to beat a benchmark.

Horizons ETFs offers many types of single or benchmark ETFs such as single equity, single currency, and single commodity ETFs.
Horizons ETFs is the only ETF provider in Canada to offer ETFs with a Total Return Swap (TRS) structure — a mechanism that provides exposure to an index benchmark without physically holding the securities held in that index. TRS structures historically provide lower tracking error and after-tax performance benefits versus ETFs which seek to replicate an index by physically holding the securities.
 
A TRS is an agreement by which one party makes payments based on a set rate, while the other party makes payments based on the total return of a reference asset. It is a popular institutional investment instrument which ensures a more precise tracking of the total return benchmark, before management fees and expenses.

TRS agreements allow the party receiving the total return to gain exposure to the performance of the index or other reference asset without actually having to own it. 
For any passive ETF that seeks to replicate the returns of an index or commodity benchmark, the success of the investment strategy is usually measured by how closely the ETF replicates the returns of that index or commodity benchmark. Any deviation from the return of the ETF versus the return of that index or commodity benchmark is generally considered tracking error.
 
Tracking error can be caused by a variety of factors including management fees, trading execution costs and taxes. 
Inverse and leveraged ETFs are tactical investment solutions that are primarily designed for the execution of a particular short-term investment strategy or perspective of the markets. These ETFs are designed to meet their investment objective only on a daily basis. They are not appropriate as a buy and hold investments if an investor is unable to closely monitor their performance. Because these ETFs use leverage, gains and losses are magnified and, due to compounding, the performance over periods other than one day will likely differ in amount and possibly direction, from the reference index/commodity benchmark. Please speak to an advisor or read the ETF’s prospectus before investing in them.  
These ETFs may pay distributions annually. However, none of these ETFs have ever paid a distribution since their launch. 
For the BetaPro ETFs whose objective is to realize a multiple of 2x or -2x the daily returns of a given benchmark index in particular, an investor's investment will experience the effects of daily compounding.

• For example, if $100 is invested in a BetaPro 2x Daily Bull ETF and the underlying index rises 1% on the next day, the investor would have $200 of exposure on day 1 and earn $2. On the following day, the investor would have $102 invested and $204 (i.e. 2x) of exposure. As such, as the ETF rises on consecutive days, the investor's capital invested to realize the daily return of the underlying benchmark index will increase each day, reflecting the "compounding" effect.

• Conversely, if $100 is invested in a BetaPro 2x Daily Bull ETF and the underlying index declines 1% on the next day, the investor would lose $2. On the following day, $98 will be invested to achieve the same investment objective. As such, as the ETF drops on consecutive days, the investor's capital invested to realize the daily return of the underlying benchmark index will decrease each day, again reflecting the "compounding" effect.

• This latter phenomena explains why the investment risk is limited to the initial cost invested. You are only potentially subject to losing your original investment because the BetaPro 2x Daily Bull, -2x Daily Bear, and Daily Inverse ETFs are rebalanced daily so you cannot lose more than you invested.
The BetaPro ETFs track a number of key benchmarks across different asset classes. Please see the specific ETF’s website page on the Horizons ETFs’ website to obtain the benchmark for any of the BetaPro ETFs.
Since these ETFs provide leverage, both gains and losses are magnified. Investors should anticipate a substantially higher standard deviation with these ETFs versus ETFs that do not use leverage. BetaPro ETFs are rebalanced on a daily basis, so unlike traditional leverage strategies, which tend to use lending mechanisms such as margin, BetaPro ETF unit holders will not lose more than their initial investment. These ETFs are designed to meet their investment objective only on a daily basis. Because these ETFs use leverage, gains and losses are magnified and, due to compounding, the performance over periods other than one day will likely differ in amount and possibly direction, from the reference index/commodity benchmark. Please read the prospectus and learn about all the risks associated with leveraged ETF investing.
A unit consolidation is the opposite of a unit split, where there is a reduction in the number of units and an accompanying increase in the unit price (NAV), such that the value of holdings remains the same after the consolidation. 

For example, if it was announced on July 6, 20XX, after the TSX closed for trading on Thursday, July 19, 20XX, the units of the following exchange traded fund would be consolidated on the basis of the ratio (the "Consolidation Ratio") set out below, and begin trading on a consolidated basis on Friday, July 20, 20XX, the effective date of the consolidation:
 
ETF Ticker Split Ratio
BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short-Term Futures™ 2x Daily Bull ETF HVU 1:10

Pre-consolidation:
Shares 1,000
NAV $2
Value $2,000 

Post-consolidation:
Shares 100 (1000 ÷ 10)
NAV $20 ($2 x 10)
Value $2,000 

In a 1:10 consolidation, every 10 units would be consolidated into a single unit. This means you will have one-tenth the number of HVU shares and the price of HVU will be multiplied by a factor of 10. Mathematically, this event will not impact the value of your investment in HVU. For example, if you had 100 shares prior to the consolidation, you now have 10 shares, both worth $2,000. 
As a general rule, a consolidation would occur with unit values at or lower than $4. Lower priced securities require a relatively higher number of shares to be traded to establish the same dollar value position. As a result, investors paying brokerage commissions on a per share basis would incur higher transaction costs. As well, brokerage firms typically will not allow securities trading at prices under $3 to be marginable.
As its name implies, a unit split is when an ETF increases the number of outstanding units of the ETF at a particular ratio (such as 2 for 1), and decreases the net asset per unit of the ETF, by the inverse ratio. In a unit split, there is an increase in the number of units issued accompanied by a proportional decrease in the unit price (Net Asset Value), such that the value of holdings remains the same after the split. 

Here's an example:

If on Friday, May 4, 2015, at the end of the trading day for the TSX, it was announced that units of the following ETF would be split on the basis of the ratio (the "Split Ratio") set out below, and began trading on a split adjusted basis on Monday, May 7, 2015. The split becomes effective on May 9, 2015, for unitholders of record on that date: 
 
ETF Ticker Split Ratio
BetaPro Natural Gas -2x Daily Bear ETF HND 4:1

A 4:1 unit split means each unit will be split into four units. After the split, you will have four times the number of HND shares you had previously. Additionally, the price of HND will be divided by a factor of four. Mathematically, this will not impact the value of your investment in HND. For example, if you had 100 shares worth $2,000 prior to the split, you now have 400 shares that are still worth $2,000 post-split. 

Pre-split:
Shares 100
NAV $20 (per share)
Value $2,000 

Post-split on a 4:1 basis:
Shares 400 (100 x 4)
NAV $5 (per share) ($20 ÷ 4)
Value $2,000 
As a general rule of thumb, the decision to split units of an ETF would occur with unit values greater than or equal to $40. The split makes it easier for an investor to afford and trade 100 share "board lots." Without the split, lower trading volumes may occur.
Horizons ETFs Management (Canada) Inc. works very closely with reorganization departments at all the major brokerage firms to provide the complete and timely information required for these changes. However, in the normal course of business it may take 3-5 business days to update holdings for clients. Please call your brokerage firm with any questions and to confirm that your individual account has been updated.
Date Ticker Name S / C Ratio
12/18/2008 HMU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Base Metals™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
12/18/2008 HJU BetaPro MSCI Emerging Markets Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
01/02/2009 HOD BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bear+ ETF S 2 : 1
01/02/2009 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
01/02/2009 HGD BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 5
04/15/2009 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF S 5 : 1
04/15/2009 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
09/16/2009 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF S 2 : 1
09/16/2009 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
10/27/2009 HMU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Base Metals™ Bull+ ETF S 3 : 1
10/27/2009 HMD BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Base Metals™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
10/27/2009 HJU BetaPro MSCI Emerging Markets Bull+ ETF S 3 : 1
10/27/2009 HJD BetaPro MSCI Emerging Markets Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
06/03/2010 HGD BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
11/8/2010 HZU BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bull+ ETF S 3 : 1
11/8/2010 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 2
03/16/2011 HBU BetaPro COMEX® Gold Bullion Bull+ ETF S 2 : 1
03/16/2011 HKU BetaPro Comex® Copper Bull+ ETF S 2 : 1
03/16/2011 HZD BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
05/10/2011 HZU BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bull+ ETF S 3 : 1
09/19/2011 HBD BetaPro COMEX® Gold Bullion Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
11/23/2011 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
04/13/2012 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
04/13/2012 HNO BetaPro NYMEX® Long Natural Gas/Short Crude Oil Spread ETF C 1 : 4
04/13/2012 HUN Horizons NYMEX® Natural Gas ETF C 1 : 4
05/09/2012 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF S 4 : 1
05/09/2012 HIN BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Inverse ETF S 4 : 1
07/19/2012 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 10
01/04/2013 DLR.U Horizons US Dollar Currency ETF C 1 : 1.009601
03/13/2013 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
04/05/2013 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF C 1 : 2
04/05/2013 HUV BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ ETF C 1 : 4
05/06/2013 HZU BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
05/06/2013 HGU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
05/15/2013 HEP Horizons Enhanced Income Gold Producers ETF C 1 : 2
09/09/2013 HXT Horizons S&P/TSX 60™ Index ETF C 1 : 2
11/18/2013 HXS Horizons S&P 500® Index ETF C 1 : 2
11/18/2013 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
11/18/2013 HQD BetaPro NASDAQ/100® Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
12/20/2013 DLR Horizons US Dollar Currency ETF C 1 : 1.005
02/13/2014 HND BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bear+ ETF C 1 : 2
06/18/2014 HED BetaPro S&P/TSX Capped Energy™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
06/18/2014 HFD BetaPro S&P/TSX Capped Financials™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
06/18/2014 HSD BetaPro S&P 500® Index Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
06/18/2014 HQU BetaPro NASDAQ/100® Bull+ ETF S 2 : 1
07/30/2014 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
11/24/2014 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 2
01/14/2015 DLR Horizons US Dollar Currency ETF C 1 : 1.005951
01/16/2015 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
08/24/2015 HEU BetaPro S&P/TSX Capped Energy™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 4
08/24/2015 HUV BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ ETF C 1 : 10
08/24/2015 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Bull+ ETF C 1 : 10
08/25/2015 HVI BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ Inverse ETF S 2 : 1
11/26/2015 HGU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bull+ ETF C 1: 5
11/26/2015 HIU BetaPro S&P 500® Inverse ETF C 1 : 10
11/26/2015 HNU BetaPro NYMEX® Natural Gas Bull+ ETF C 1 : 10
11/26/2015 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 2
11/26/2015 HQD BetaPro NASDAQ/100® Bear+ ETF C 1 : 5
11/26/2015 HXD BetaPro S&P/TSX 60™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 2
11/26/2015 HZU BetaPro COMEX® Silver Bull+ ETF C 1 : 5
02/16/2016 HEE Horizons Enhanced Income Energy ETF C 1 : 5
02/16/2016 HEP Horizons Enhanced Income Gold Producers ETF C 1 : 5
02/16/2016 HNY Horizons Natural Gas Yield ETF C 1 : 5
05/30/2016 HGD BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bear+ ETF C 1 : 4
05/30/2016 HOU BetaPro NYMEX® Crude Oil Bull+ ETF C 1 : 2
05/30/2016 HTD BetaPro U.S. 30/Year Bond Bear+ ETF C 1 : 2
05/30/2016 HUC Horizons NYMEX® Crude Oil ETF C 1 : 2
05/30/2016 HGU BetaPro S&P/TSX Global Gold™ Bull+ ETF S 2 : 1
11/23/2016 HVU BetaPro S&P 500 VIX Short/Term Futures™ 2x Daily Bull ETF C 1 : 10

Horizons ETFs is a Member of Mirae Asset Global Investments. Commissions, trailing commissions, management fees and expenses all may be associated with an investment in exchange traded products managed by AlphaPro Management Inc. and Horizons ETFs Management (Canada) Inc. (the "Horizons Exchange Traded Products"). The Horizons Exchange Traded Products are not guaranteed, their values change frequently and past performance may not be repeated. The prospectus contains important detailed information about the Horizons Exchange Traded Products. Please read the relevant prospectus before investing.

The Horizons Exchange Traded Products consist of the Horizons Index ETFs ("Index ETFs"), 2x Daily Bull and -2x Daily Bear ETFs ("2x Daily ETFs"), Inverse ETFs ("Inverse ETFs"), VIX ETFs (defined below) and active ETFs. The 2x Daily ETFs and certain other Horizons Exchange Traded Products use leveraged investment techniques that can magnify gains and losses and may result in greater volatility of returns. These Horizons Exchange Traded Products are subject to leverage risk and may be subject to aggressive investment risk and price volatility risk, which, where applicable, are described in their respective prospectuses. Each 2x Daily ETF seeks a return, before fees and expenses, that is either 200% or -200% of the performance of a specified underlying index, commodity or benchmark (the "Target") for a single day. Each Index ETF or Inverse ETF seeks a return that is 100% or -100%, respectively, of the performance of a Target. Due to the compounding of daily returns, a 2x Daily ETF's or Inverse ETF's returns over periods other than one day will likely differ in amount and possibly direction from the performance of their respective Target(s) for the same period. The Horizons Exchange Traded Products whose Target is the S&P 500 VIX Short-Term Futures Index™ (the "VIX ETFs"), one of which is a 2x Daily ETF and one of which is an Index ETF, as described in their prospectus, are speculative investment tools that are not conventional investments. The VIX ETFs' Target is highly volatile. As a result, the VIX ETFs are not generally viewed as stand-alone long-term investments. Historically, the VIX ETFs' Target has tended to revert to a historical mean. As a result, the performance of the VIX ETFs' Target is expected to be negative over the longer term and neither the VIX ETFs nor their Target are expected to have positive long term performance. Investors should monitor their holdings, as frequently as daily, to ensure that they remain consistent with their investment strategies.

*The indicated rates of return are the historical annual compounded total returns including changes in per unit value and reinvestment of all dividends or distributions and do not take into account sales, redemption, distribution or optional charges or income taxes payable by any securityholder that would have reduced returns. The rates of return shown in the table are not intended to reflect future values of the ETF or returns on investment in the ETF. Only the returns for periods of one year or greater are annualized returns.